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From Canada:

I have type 1, and am age 23, diagnosed 2 years ago. I am looking for more information regarding other hormone deficiencies, specifically C-peptide, amylin, and pregnenolone. Most GP's and specialists ignore the fact that 1) the Beta cells produce 3 hormones (insulin, amylin, c-peptide) 2) that the lack of c-peptide and amylin causes a secondary deficiency, namely, the body cannot convert cholesterol into pregnenolone.

Please send or post information regarding these other hormones. The pregnenolone connection can be verified by doing a medline (PubMed) search including the query [pregnenolone + diabetes].


From your question I judge that you have already explored PubMed about pregnenolone. You can find a brief summary about amylin at a previous question and of course much more if you again go to PubMed. Pramlintide was effective in controlling glucose absorption in a modest way; but the clinical advantage was limited in comparison with less expensive approaches and I have heard that Lilly is no longer underwriting the production.

For a long time C-peptide was thought of simply as the fragment of the proinsulin molecule that was released when insulin was formed. In the last few years however a group at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm carried out a small but well conducted study which did show some benefit in Type 1 Diabetes. The reference, if you can get to a medical library is Johanssen,W.J. Horm.Metab.Res 1998(Jan), 30:A2-A5. I was also told that a firm in Germany is planning to synthesize and market the product for human use. My guess would be that, like amylin, the enormous costs of marketing in North America would discourage production in the US when set against its apparently modest benefits.


Original posting 15 Sep 1998
Updated 8 Jan 2000
Posted to Research: Other


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